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The Tian Shan, also Tien Shan, is one of the world's largest system of mountain ranges located in Central Asia. The mountain ranges has several ocal names. The Chinese name for Tian Shan may be derived from the Xiongnu language name Qilian, which was described by Sima Qian in the Records of the Grand Historian as the homeland of the pre-Xiongnu peoples of the region, the Yuezhi, and has been said to refer to the Tian Shan rather than to the range 1,500 kilometres (930 mi) further east now known by this name. The nearby Tannu-Ola Mountains bear the same name.

The famous peaks of Tian Shan Mountains are Khan Tengri(7,010 m), Pik Talgar(4,979 m), Bogda Peak(5,445 m), Vladimir Putin Peak(4,446 m), Xuelian Feng(6,627 m), Sauyr Zhotasy(3,840 m). The highest peak in the Tian Shan is Victory Peak (Jengish Chokusu), 7,439 metres (24,406 ft).

On 2013 Conference of World Heritage, the eastern portion of Tian Shan in western China's Xinjiang is listed as a World Heritage Site. Xinjiang Tianshan comprises four components - Tomur, Kalajun-Kuerdening, Bayinbukuke and Bogda - that total 606,833 hectares. Xinjiang Tianshan presents unique physical geographic features and scenically beautiful areas including spectacular snow and snowy mountains glacier-capped peaks, undisturbed forests and meadows, clear rivers and lakes and red bed canyons. These landscapes contrast with the vast adjacent desert landscapes, creating a striking visual contrast between hot and cold environments, dry and wet, desolate and luxuriant. The landforms and ecosystems of the site have been preserved since the Pliocene epoch and present an outstanding example of ongoing biological and ecological evolutionary processes. The site also extends into the Taklimakan Desert, one of the world’s largest and highest deserts, known for its large dune forms and great dust storms. Xinjiang Tianshan is moreover an important habitat for endemic and relic flora species, some rare and endangered.